Lab Values

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Total Red Blood Cell (RBC) / Erythrocyte count
Male, 4.3 - 5.9 x 10^12/L
Female, 3.5 - 5.5 x 10^12/L
Hematocrit / Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
Male, 41 - 53%
Female, 36 - 46%
Hemoglobin (Hgb)
Male, 13.5 - 17.5 g/dL
Female, 12.0 - 16.0 g/dL
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
80 - 100 fl/cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
25.4 - 34.6 pg/cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
31 - 36% Hb/cell
Reticulocyte count
0.5 - 1.5% of red cells
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Total White Blood Cell (WBC) / Leukocyte count
4.5 - 11.0 x 10^9/L
Segmented Neutrophils
65 - 75%
3 - 5%
1 - 3%
0 - 0.75%
25 - 33%
3 - 7%
Platelet count
150 - 400 x 10^9/L
Bleeding time (template)
2 - 7 minutes
Prothrombin time
11 - 15 seconds
Thrombin time
<2 seconds deviation from control
Partial thromboplastin time (activated)
25 - 40 seconds
Liver Function
Serum Bilirubin (Adult)
Total, 0.1 - 1.0 mg/dL
Direct, 0.0 - 0.3 mg/dL
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, GOT at 30°C)
8 - 20 U/L
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, GPT at 30°C)
8 - 20 U/L
Phosphatase (Alkaline), Serum (p-NPP at 30°C)
20 - 70 U/L
Proteins, Serum Total (recumbent)
6.0 - 7.8 g/dL
3.5 - 5.5 g/dL
2.3 - 3.5 g/dL
Renal Function + Electrolytes
Urea Nitrogen, Serum (BUN)
7 - 18 mg/dL
Uric Acid, Serum
3.0 - 8.2 mg/dL
Creatinine, Serum
0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Calcium, Serum (Ca2+)
8.4 - 10.2 mg/dL
Sodium (Na+)
136 - 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl-)
95 - 105 mEq/L
Potassium (K+)
3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 - 2.0 mEq/L
Phosphorus (inorganic), Serum
3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
22 - 28 mEq/L
Endocrine Function
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Serum or Plasma
0.5 - 5.0 µIU/mL
Thyroxine (T4), Serum
5 - 12 µg/dL
Triiodothyronine (T3), Serum (RIA)
115 - 190 ng/dL
Glucose, Serum (Average)
Fasting 70 - 110 mg/dL
Postprandial (>2hrs) < 140 mg/dL
Random 140 - 199 mg/dL
Hemoglobin A1C
Cholesterol, Serum
Rec:<200 mg/dL
Triglycerides, Serum
35 - 160 mg/dL
Ferritin, Serum
Male 15 - 200 ng/mL
Female 12 - 150 ng/mL
50 - 170 µg/dL
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) / Transferrin Conc.
255 - 450 µg/dL
7.35 - 7.45
33 - 45 mmHg
75 - 105 mmHg
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum
45 - 90 U/L
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Male 0 - 15 mm/h
Female 0 - 20 mm/h
Creatine Kinase (CK), Serum
Male 25 - 90 U/L
Female 10 - 70 U/L
Amylase, Serum
25 - 125 U/L
Osmolality, Serum
275 - 295 mOsmol/kg

Internal Medicine



Asthma, Pleural Diseases, Pulmonary Embolism (PE), Pulmonary Neoplasia (Lung Cancer), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)


No one wants to waste time reading a preface. Neither did we want to write something that will get ignored. But this isn’t that formality.

We wrote this introduction to quickly explain to you why this course is different. In the book, ‘The Magic of Thinking Big’ author David Schwartz wrote, ‘The story is told that the great scientist Einstein was once asked how many feet are in a mile. Einstein’s reply was, “I don’t know. Why should I fill my brain with facts I can find in two minutes in any standard reference book?” Einstein taught us a big lesson. He felt it was more important to use your mind to think than to use it as a warehouse for facts.’ And then the author goes on to explain that the ability to know how to get and use information is more important than using the mind as a garage for miscellaneous facts.

Unfortunately, most question banks consist of a haphazard assortment of different questions probing for information to prepare you for the exam. But once you get responsible for patients, both you and your patient know that they rely on you for your thinking skills and Google for a quick fact check.

So based on this principle, we develop our courses in Tome Pollom. Every chapter has the concepts explained in a clear, simple, and straight-forward way. In fact, you will need little effort to understand the concepts and will be surprised how quickly and easily you can finish studying!

Our hope is that this course is going to save you time and energy (and sleep and anti-depressants and hair-loss) and much more of your valuable resources. Just see for yourself.

Nevertheless, if you feel anything needs improving from your perspective, or whether the information is unclear or wrong, every page has a ‘Send Us Your feedback’ box for your kind input. We thrive on your feedback and criticisms and we aim to improve as we go along together. So, thank you in advance.

Hope you have a productive session. Make sure you get enough sleep!

About the course

The adjective ‘pulmonary’ refers to the lungs, and the study of the respiratory tract and lung tissue in health and disease is called pulmonology. The word ‘respiration’ on the other hand, has two meanings:
  •       The more obvious one is that it is concerned with the exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the body and the external environment. In this case, the process is intimately associated with the circulatory system.
  •       The not so obvious one (unless you’re a student of science) is when cells use oxygen (O2) to metabolize organic molecules. This is called cellular respiration.
This course is built around the most common non-infectious diseases that interfere with the process of respiration, like the obstructive pulmonary diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as lung cancer, pulmonary embolism (PE), and finally, pleural diseases.

What will you learn

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What our students say


Cutts Daniel

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Daniel Smith

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Katherine Cutts

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